Terminology in GP/FM

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 GP/FM terminology

 As stated above, each of the Q-Codes has a definition, more appropriately described as a scope note. The scope notes have been carefully selected from online available terminologies, papers or dictionaries listed here-under. The below list is copied from the HeTOP server. Each scope note is followed by its source between brackets and by the corresponding Q-Codes. The sources of the scope notes are either MeSH either available here in .pdf


Category label Q-Code scope notes Origin ID
Academic organization teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school or a medical society. (adapted from MeSH, see under Faculty, Medical) QT14
Acceptability  acceptability relates to cultural and social distance. This mainly refers to the characteristics of the health providers – health workers’ behavior, gender aspects, excessive bureaucracy etc. (Hausmann-Muela et al., 2012) QP25
Accessibility  a measure of the ease with which a specific population can obtain appropriate health services and be served by facilities within the health care system. (IIME) QP21
Accreditation  a process whereby recognition is granted by a professional organization to an institution or service person as assessed by predetermined criteria. (Woncadic) QT35
Action research a research strategy dealing with the study of a social situation, and, at the same time, intended to improve the quality of action. The two central concerns, improvement in practice and increased knowledge, and understanding, are linked together. (Woncadic) QR35
Addict a person who is dependent on drugs or certain activities, and who experiences symptoms and shows signs if these are discontinued. (Woncadic) QC4
Adolescent a person 13 to 17 years of age. (adapted from Woncadic) QC13
Adult a person who has achieved the legal age of adult certification. (Woncadic) QC14
Adverse event & pharmacovigilance Adverse event: an adverse event is any untoward medical occurrence that may present during treatment with a pharmaceutical product, but which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment. (WHO Upssala, 2011) QT52
Affordability  opportunity to attain full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance. (adapted from MeSH, see under Health Equity) QP24
Age groups the list of all patients in a practice arranged by age and sex. The primary purpose of these groups is to provide a defined population against which rates of observed occurrence in a practice may be calculated. (adapted from Woncadic) QC1
Allied health professionals health service providers, other than medical practitioners and nurses, who provide care for and treatment of patients, and who usually practice various forms of diagnostics, prevention, health education, and treatment. Examples include physiotherapists, podiatrists, and psychologists. (Woncadic) QS44
Balint group A group of GPs/FPs meeting regularly over a long period of time to discuss their personal emotional problems arising in the care of patients in their practices, with the intention of improving the quality of their medical performance, and enhancing their ability to care for their patients. (Woncadic) QT24
Bioethics the study of ethical, social, or legal issues arising in biomedicine and biomedical research. (NIEH Gloss) QE3
Biological hazard processes of organic origin or those conveyed by biological vectors, including exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms, toxins and bioactive substances, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. (Reliefweb) QH2
Care manager a person with the ability to: Manage primary contact with patients, dealing with unselected problems; cover the full range of health conditions; coordinate care with other professionals in primary care and with other specialists; master effective and appropriate care provision and health service utilization; make available to the patient the appropriate services within the health care system; and act as advocate for the patient. (Euract, 2005) QD3
Case report a published exposition of a patient’s medical history (physical findings, course and management of care), providing the reader with sufficient information to understand the patient’s health problems and the methods suggested to solve them. (Woncadic) QR36
Child a person less than 15 years of age (0 – 14 years). (Woncadic) QC12
Child abuse Maltreatment of children. It may take the form of sexual abuse, when a child is involved in sexual activity by an adult; physical abuse, when physical injury is caused by cruelty or undue punishment; neglect, when basic physical provision for needs is lacking; and emotional abuse, when lack of affection or negative emotions from caregivers damages a child’s emotional development. (Woncadic) QC52
Classification an ordering of all elements of a domain into groups according to established criteria.(Woncadic) QR51
Clinical competence the degree to which a physician’s performance fulfills stated criteria for good clinical practice. (Woncadic) QD24
Clinical prevention the application of preventive measures. A field of medical practice composed of distinct disciplines that utilize skills focusing on the health of defined populations in order to promote and maintain health and well-being, and to prevent disease, disability, and premature death. (Woncadic) QD4
Cohort study studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics. (adapted from MeSH, see under Cohort Studies) QR322
Communicator The process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and non-verbal messages. In the context of medical education, its primary function is to establish understanding between patient and doctor. (IIME) QD1
Community-based study collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives. (adapted from MeSH, see under Community-Based Participatory Research) QR22
Complementary and Alternative Medicine  alternative medicine is any practice that is put forward as having the healing effects of medicine, but does not originate from evidence gathered using the scientific method. (Wikipedia) QD5
Complementary Medicine complementary medicine is diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention which complements mainstream medicine by contributing to a common whole, by satisfying a demand not met by orthodoxy or by diversifying the conceptual frameworks of medicine.(Ernst & all, BJGP. 1995) QD5
Comprehensiveness the practice of continuing comprehensive care which is the concurrent prevention and management of multiple physical and emotional health problems of a patient over a period of time in relationship to family, life events and environment. (AAFP) QD22
Confidentiality the principle in medical ethics that the information which a patient reveals to a physician is private and has limits on how and when it can be disclosed to a third party. Usually the physician must obtain permission from the patient to make such disclosures. (Woncadic) QE41
Continuity of care management of health problems of patients over a long period of time that characterizes general practice/family medicine. Consider relational and informational continuity. (Woncadic) QD25
Continuous medical education any and all ways by which a graduated physician continues to learn and change in practice in a lifelong learning scheme. (EURACT 2014) QT23
Coordination of care the extent to which patient care is coordinated across the system’s different functions, activities and operating units. The degree of coordination of care depends primarily on the patient’s condition and the decisions made by his or her health team. (WHO Gloss 2016) QS33
Counter-referral secondary care that responds promptly and in a coordinated way once patients are referred from primary care, and includes fast-track facilities where a serious diagnosis is suspected. (EXPH, 2014) QS32
Critical reading   learning to perform a medical database search in EBM, including defining a clinical question, looking for medical evidence, critical reflection on evidence and implementation in practice. (EURACT 2014) QT33
Cross-sectional study an observational study which does not test a specific hypothesis by performing an experiment. Measures the burden of a disease and its distribution in the population. (Woncadic) QR323
Cultural competency  cultural competency deals with the extent to which a clinician integrates cultural considerations into communication, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. (Haggerty et al., 2007) QP23
Deadoption the discontinuation of a clinical practice after it was previously adopted. (Niven et al., 2015) QD326
Deprescription directions written to discontinue use of prescription drugs in order to reduce unnecessary and/or excessive medications. (MeSH) QD326
Digital library an online collection of digital objects, of assured quality, that are created or collected and managed according to internationally accepted principles for collection development and made accessible in a coherent and sustainable manner, supported by services necessary to allow users to retrieve and exploit the resources. (Scielo, 2014) QT43
Disease mongering the selling of sickness that widens the boundaries of illness in order to grow markets for those who sell and deliver treatments. (Moynihan et al., 2008) QD442
Doctor as carer a sociophysiologic process through which the doctor and patient can influence each other’s health for better and worse. (Adler, 2002) QD2
Doctor-patient relationship alliance between the doctor and patient, based on cooperation rather than confrontation, in which the doctor must understand the patient as a unique human being and in which active, autonomous patient must advocate greater patient control, reduced physician dominance, and more mutual participation. (adapted from Kaba & Sooriakumaran, 2007) QD12
Doctor’s issues issues concerning family doctors as personal doctors, primarily responsible for the provision of comprehensive and continuing care to every individual seeking medical care irrespective of age, sex and illness. (Euract 2005 partim) QD
Economics, primary health care discipline which concentrates on application of the principles and rules of economics in the sphere of primary health care. (adapted from IIME) QR7
Economy of practice economic aspects of the field of family medicine and primary health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease on the patient, the physician, society, or government. (adapted from MeSH, see under Economics, Medical) QS12
Elder abuse a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person. (WHO Ageing and life-course 2004) QC53
Elderly persons of an older age, usually 60 to 65 years old and retired from work. (Woncadic) QC15
Electronic communications transmission of information over distances via electronic means by health care partners (including patients). (adapted from MeSH, see under Telecommunication) QT44
Encounter  any professional exchange between a patient and a health care provider, be this provider a single professional or a health care team. (Woncadic) QD11
Environmental health the science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health. (MeSH) QH1
Epidemiology of primary care the application of epidemiological principles and methods to the study and control of problems arising in primary care. (Dicepid) QR2
Ethic of information the branch of ethics that focuses on the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and use of information, and the ethical standards and moral codes governing human conduct in society. (ODLIS) QE4
Ethnic subgroup a social group characterized by sharing a distinctive social and cultural tradition maintained through generations, a common history and origin, shared experiences, and often a common genetic heritage. (Woncadic) QC31
Euthanasia the act of shortening life to relieve suffering. Euthanasia may be voluntary (the sufferer asks for measures to end his/her life), active (by administration of a drug), or passive (by deliberate withholding of treatment). (Woncadic) QE31
Evidence based medicine the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. (Woncadic) QT31
Expert advice presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject. (adapted from MeSH, see under Expert Testimony) QR6
Family caregiver any relative, partner, friend or neighbor, who has a significant personal relationship with, and provides a broad range of assistance to, an older person or an adult with a chronic or disabling condition. (FCA, 2014) QS45
Family doctor  general practitioners, family doctors are personal doctors, primarily responsible for the provision of comprehensive and continuing care to every individual seeking medical care irrespective of age, sex and illness. They care for individuals in the context of their family, their community, and their culture, always respecting the autonomy of their patients.” (Euract 2005 partim) QS41
Family planning services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. (adapted from MeSH, see under Family Planning Services) QD27
Field training in medicine on the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs. (adapted from MeSH, see under Inservice Training) QT2
Functional status the ability of a person to perform and adapt to his environment, measured both objectively and subjectively over a stated period of time. (Woncadic) QR53
Game addict  gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value, referred to as “the stakes” on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods. (DBpedia) QC43
Gender issue in primary care and family medicine, questions arising related to the gender of the patient or of the doctor and their interaction. Encompasses the gender role and gender identity. (adapted from Veloshnee & Loveday, 2007) QC2
Gender-based violence a pattern of gender-based coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation. (adapted from Flitcraft, et al., 1992) QC51
Genetic issues includes inherited disorders, the possibility of being affected or having affected children, and the various options available for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of such conditions. (Woncadic) QD34
Guideline recommended reference programs developed on the basis of EBM to assist physicians and patients in choosing appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. (Woncadic) QT32
Health behavior health behavior is the way in which the individual combines knowledge, practice, and attitudes to influence health. (Woncadic) QP5
Health data reporting collecting a basic, uniform data set to serve as a starting point from which to measure health care quality, and to serve as a standard minimum demographic data set. (adapted from AHRQ) QT5
Health database  database containing patient registration information and all care events that general practitioners have chosen to record as part of their usual medical practice. (from GPRD) QT53
Health education the provision of information, advice, counselling, and training in activities that can promote health. (Woncadic) QD23
Health information management the adequacy of methods and systems to capture, update, retrieve, and monitor patient data in a timely, pertinent, and confidential manner. (Haggerty et al., 2007) QS13
Health issue management the process of medical care for a certain health problem in an individual patient from the first presenting symptom and reason for encounter through diagnosis to treatment. (Woncadic) QD32
Health risk management process of minimizing risk to a patient by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. (adapted from MeSH, see under Risk Management) QD31
Health status assesment assessment of the ability of a person to perform and adapt to his environment, measured both objectively and subjectively over a stated period of time. (Woncadic) QD33
Homeless  persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples. (adapted from MeSH, see under Homeless Persons) QC33
Homeopathy a system of medicine which involves treating the individual with highly diluted substances, given mainly in tablet form, with the aim of triggering the body’s natural system of healing. (The Society of Homeopaths) QD51
Incidentaloma used to designate an incidentally discovered mass, by chance, in an asymptomatic person, which probably never will harm him/her, not excluding a real possibility of damage and a few chance of benefit. (Mariño, 2015) QD324
Indoor pollution the contamination of indoor air. It involves exposures to particulates, carbon oxides, and other pollutants carried by indoor air or dust. (NIEH Gloss) QH11
Infant pertaining to a group of babies, especially those who are not yet able to walk, and usually less than one year of age. (adapted from Woncadic) QC11
Informed consent voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment. (MeSH) QE42
Intervention study an investigation involving intentional change in some aspect of the status of the subjects, e.g., introduction of a preventive or therapeutic regimen or an intervention designed to test a hypothesized relationship; usually an experiment such as a randomized controlled trial. (Dicepid) QR325
Knowledge management  the leveraging of collective wisdom within an organization as a catalyst to increase responsiveness and innovation. (MeSH) QT
Knowledge translation a dynamic and iterative process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve health. (CIHR, 2010) QT4
Longitudinal study studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time. (adapted from MeSH, see under Longitudinal Studies; Woncadic) QR324
Management of practice provision of continuous care across different services through the integration and coordination of needs and resources around the patient. (WHO Gloss 2016) QS11
Medical ethics the identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (adapted from MeSH, see Ethics, Clinical) QE
Medically unexplained symptom symptoms that may, or may not, be due to physical disease, which captures conditions without corresponding objective findings, often associated with high costs, both direct (health care use) and indirect costs (productivity loss due to sickness absence) that are more severe, more persistent, or limit functioning to a greater extent than expected, based on (objective) disease parameters. (adapted from Olde Hartman, Aamland & Rsak, 2014) QD321
Medico legal issues medical issue which deals with any aspect of medicine, which has an interface with the law. (Woncadic) QD6
Men’s health a male health issue is one arising from physiological, psychological, social, cultural or environmental factors that has a specific impact on boys or men and/or where particular interventions are required for boys or men in order to achieve improvements in health and well-being at either the individual or the population level. (EU 2011) QC21
Midwife provides care and advice to women during pregnancy, labor and childbirth and the post-natal period. They deliver babies working independently or in collaboration with medical doctors, nurses and other health care workers and provide advice and assistance to parents in relation to baby care. (ISCO-08 2222) QS43
Migrants people who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country   (MeSH see under emigrants and immigrants) QC32
Mixed method research research paradigm that encourages the combined use of qualitative and quantitative research elements to answer complex questions. (Heyvaert et al., 2011) QR33
Motivational interviewing is a method that works on facilitating and engaging intrinsic motivation within the client in order to change behavior. MI is a goal-oriented, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behavior change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. (DBpedia) QD15
Multimorbidity several concurrent medical conditions within one person. (Van den Akker et al., 1998) QD322
Nuclear hazard health concerns associated with the effects of radiation on the environment and on public and personal health. (adapted from MeSH, see under Radiologic Health) QH3
Nurse practitioner treats and provides care for people who are physically or mentally ill, the elderly, the injured or physically or mentally disabled. They assume responsibility for the planning and management of the care of patients, including the supervision of other health care workers, working in teams with medical doctors and others in the practical application of preventive and curative measures, dealing with emergencies as appropriate. (ISCO-08 2221) QS42
Observation material can be collected from participant observation or indirectly and retrospectively through the collection of material representing a natural event which has happened. Material can be collected through audiotape or videotape recordings e.g. from patient-physician interactions. (Woncadic) QR54
Observational case-control study a study that identifies persons with a problem and a control group without it. The relationship of an attribute of the problem is examined by comparing those with the problem and those without it. (Woncadic) QR321
Online knowledge-sharing disseminate and share acquired knowledge with peers through online facilities. (adapted from Ryu et al., Expert systems, 25:1. 2003) QT42
Ontologie in informatics, an ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization.(Gruber 1993) QR51
Outdoor pollution presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air. Involves exposures that take place outside of the built environment. (NIEHS gloss) QH12
Out-of-hours services a service which provides urgent medical care out of hours for patients whose primary physician is off duty. (Woncadic) QS2
Over the counter drugs medicines that can be sold legally without a drug prescription. (MeSH, see under Nonprescription Drugs) QP54
Overdiagnosis overdiagnosis occurs when a diagnosis is “correct” according to current professional standards but when the diagnosis or associated treatment has a low probability of benefiting the person diagnosed. (Moynihan, 2012) QD445
Overinformation at the personal level, a perception on the part of the individual (or observers of that person) that the flows of information associated with work tasks is greater than can be managed effectively, and a perception that the overload in this sense creates a degree of stress for which his or her coping strategies are ineffective. (Wilson, 2001) QD443
Overmedicalisation an excess of exposure to, or seeking of healthcare to an extent in which it does not confer any benefit in terms of health and welfare (directly related to the terms: overscreening, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment). (Vaz Cardoso, 2014) QD441
Overscreening excessive, abusive or unnecessary method of screening so that harms outweigh the benefits. (Pizzanelli, 2014) QD444
Overtreatment an excessive drug load leading to a suboptimal risk-to-benefit ratio. Initiating treatment in conditions where it is not indicated. (Peruka & Kwan, 2005) QD446
Palliative care is the active, total care of patients at a time when their disease is no longer responsive to curative treatment and when control of pain, other symptoms, and of psychological, social and spiritual problems are paramount. (Woncadic) QD26
Patient advocacy giving support to the patient or acting on his behalf. (Woncadic) QP7
Patient alimentation issues patient’s issues in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients. (adapted from MeSH, see under Nutritional Status) QP51
Patient autonomy the right of individuals to exercise free will in making informed choices of care. (Woncadic) QP43
Patient cultural background a collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language. (adapted from MeSH, see under Culture) QP44
Patient health care expenses payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance. (adapted from MeSH, see under Financing, Personal) QP45
Patient issue concern of a  patient, i.e. a person who requests, receives or contracts for medical advice or services from a health care provider in family medicine. (adapted from Woncadic) QP
Patient knowledge degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. (adapted from MeSH, see under Health Literacy) QP42
Patient perspective individual’s expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others. (adapted from MeSH, see under Patient Preference) QP4
Patient safety patient safety is the absence of preventable harm to a patient during the process of health care. (WHO) QP1
Patient satisfaction judgement by the patient of the extent to which their needs are met by a medical or health service. (Woncadic) QP41
Patient’s sexuality patient’s issues related to the sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations. (adapted from MeSH, see under Sexuality) QP52
Patient-centredness is an approach in which the GP/FP relates to the patient as a whole person and not only the health problem. This allows the patient to tell about his expectations, thoughts, feelings, and fears, while the GP/FP relates to all aspects of the patient’s life situation. This helps the physician to understand each patient as a unique individual. (Woncadic) QP2
Patient’s category  qualities and characterization of various types of populations in primary care within a social or geographic group, with emphasis on demography, gender, health habit, health status, and socioeconomic factors. (adapted from MeSH, see under Population Characteristics) QC
Patient’s participation involvement of clients and community members in decisions regarding the structure of the practice and services provided. (e.g., advisory committees, community governance) (APHC2004) QP6
Pedagogic methods standard procedures in the presentation of material, the content of activities, and the role of the teacher and the learner. Some are teacher-centered others student-centered. In medicine many methods can be used to facilitate learning, some of which are unique to medicine. (Woncadic) QT11
Peer review a critical study by professional colleagues of mutual performance, aspects of medical practice, research protocols, manuscripts submitted for publication, or abstracts submitted for presentations at scientific meetings. (Woncadic) QT34
Personal ethical view personal views, emotions or reasons of religion or conscience interfering with the process of care and the delivery of certain medical services facing the suffering of the patient or the provider. It encompasses conscientious objection and conscientious refusal. (adapted from Genuis & Lipp, 2013) QE1
Pharmacist compounds and dispenses medications following prescriptions issued by physicians, dentists, or other authorized health practitioners. They ensure safe and quality use of medicines, and optimize health outcomes by contributing to selecting, prescribing, monitoring and evaluating medicine therapy, and researching, testing and developing pharmaceuticals and medical products. (ISCO-08 2262) QS46
Pharmacoepidemiology the study of the distribution and determinants of drug-related events in populations and the application of this study to efficacious and safe drug treatment. (Woncadic) QR21
Pharmacovigilance The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.(MeSH) QT52
Physiotherapist assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and decrease or prevent deformity of patients suffering from disease or injury. They use manipulative methods, and ultrasound, heating, laser or similar techniques. (ISCO-08 2264) QS441
Planetary Health planetary health is the health of human civilization and the state of the natural systems on which it depends. (Horton & Lo, Lancet;386;14,2015) QH
Practice collaboration care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient. (adapted from MeSH, see under Patient Care Team) QS31
Practice equipment equipment and durable items that last for several years, e.g. beds, examination tables, sterilizers, microscopes, weighing scales, and bedpans. (ECHO) QS14
Practice relationship  reciprocal interaction of personnel with their patients and other professionals in the Primary Health Care practice. (adapted from MeSH, see under Interprofessional Relations; and Professional-Patient Relations) QS3
Prescribed drug addict Improper use of prescription drugs or medications by patients outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. (adapted from MeSH, see under Prescription Drug Misuse) QC41
Prescribing behavior prescription patterns depend on the professional qualifications of the prescribers, the quality of their training, in-service training and supervision activities, ingrained traditions, market incentives, patient preferences, regulatory provisions, drug supply constraints, the availability of treatment guidelines. (Pavignani & Colombo, WHO. 2008) QD325
Primary care provider a person, a team, or an organization which delivers first line health care services to a patient or a subject of care. (adapted from Woncadic) QS4
Primary care setting building housing personnel, who provide a number of health care services e.g. GPs/FPs, community nurses, dentists, antenatal and child health clinics etc. Social services may also operate from such a center. (Woncadic) QS1
Primary prevention action taken to avoid or remove the cause of a health problem in an individual or a population before it arises. It includes health promotion and specific protection (e.g., immunization). (Woncadic) QD41
Prisoner a person who is deprived of liberty against their will. (Webster) QC34
Problem solving a learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal. (MeSH) QD21
Professional ethics the principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (adapted from MeSH, see under Ethics, Professional) QE2
Professional image identify and understand the processes whereby family physicians seek to control the ideas others form about them as a professional group, i.e. impression management. (adapted from Rodriguez et al., 2014) QD7
Psychologist research into and study mental processes and behavior of human beings as individuals or in groups, and apply this knowledge to promote personal, social, educational or occupational adjustment and development. (ISCO-88 2445) QS443
Publishing the business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature. It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. (adapted from MeSH, see under Publishing) QT41
Qualitative study qualitative research involves an interpretive naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000) QR31
Quality assurance process of planned activities based on performance review and enhancement with the aim of continually improving standards of patient care. (Woncadic) QT3
Quality indicator a measurable element for which there is evidence or consensus that it can be used to assess the quality of care provided. (Woncadic) QT36
Quality of health care  quality in family medicine means the best outcomes that are possible, given available resources, and that are consistent with patient values and preferences. (Woncadic) QP3
Quantitative study In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. (Given, 2008 Sage) QR32
Quaternary prevention action taken to identify patient at risk of overmedicalisation, to protect him from new medical invasion, and to suggest to him interventions, which are ethically acceptable. (Woncadic) QD44
Questionnaire is the main instrument for collecting data in survey research. Basically, it is a set of standardized questions, often called items , which follow a fixed scheme in order to collect individual data about one or more specific topics.  (Trobia 2008 Sage) QR52
Referral the process by which the responsibility for part or all of the care of a patient is temporarily transferred to another health care provider. Patients may be referred for a specific service, a general opinion, or for other reasons. (Woncadic) QS32
Refugees persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (adapted from MeSH, see under Refugees) QC32
Research and development  critical or scientific investigation to acquire deeper knowledge or new information. (Woncadic) QR
Research funding financial support of research activities.(MeSH) QR5
Research methods   specific set of methods to test the effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions under prevailing primary care conditions, including qualitative approaches, longitudinal studies and intervention studies. (adapted from Kruschinski et al., EGPRN 2010) QR3
Research network a group of ambulatory practices devoted principally to the primary care of patients, affiliated with each other (and often with an academic or professional organization) in order to investigate questions related to community-based practice (AHRQ) QR4
Research tools set of technical material used in research in general practice / family medicine.. QR5
Ritual mutilation body modification done for multiple reasons: cultural beliefs, achieving self-identity, societal identity, attractiveness, intimidation and crossing-over of stage of life. It does not occur by accident, encompass perceived benefit and agreement to participate in the modification process. (adapted from Barnes, 2010) QC55
Scales and questionnaires numerical measurement scales and predetermined set of questions used to collect data, clinical, socioeconomic, functional etc. (adapted from Woncadic) QR52
Science philosophy philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions concern what counts as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the purpose of science. (DBpedia) QR1
Secondary prevention Action taken to detect a health problem at an early stage in an individual or a population, thereby facilitating cure, reducing or preventing it from spreading and its long-term effects (e.g., methods, screening, case finding and early diagnosis). (Woncadic) QD42
Self-care performance by the patient of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one’s family and friends. (adapted from MeSH, see under Self Care) QP53
Sentinel network in family medicine, network of physicians or practices that undertake to maintain surveillance for and to report certain specific predetermined events (adapted from Dicepid) QT51
Sex difference refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female, or intersex (i.e., atypical combinations of features that usually distinguish male from female). There are a number of indicators of biological sex, including sex chromosomes, gonads, internal reproductive organs, and external genitalia. (APA 2011) QC23
Shared decision making health care practitioners and patients work together to make joint decisions about a patient’s care. SDM requires that patients be educated about and understand risks and benefits of their options. (Cochrane-Legare, 2010) QD323
Simulated patient simulated patient (SP), or standardized patient (SP) (also known as a patient instructor) in health care is a healthy subject, or an actual patient who has been trained to portray accurately and consistently a particular patient case in order to simulate a set of symptoms or problems, and who is also trained to assess the performance of students, trainees or doctors based on predefined criteria. (EURACT 2014) QT131
Social high risk  characteristics, such as genetic, social, economic, cultural, or psychological circumstances can cause an individual or population to become vulnerable to a particular injury or disease.  characteristic of an individual or a population who because of their genetic, social, economic, cultural, or psychological circumstances or genetic background are vulnerable to a particular injury or disease. (adapted from Woncadic) QC3
Social network a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. (adapted from DBpedia) QP61
Social worker provides guidance to clients in social and related matters to enable them to find and use resources to overcome difficulties and achieve particular goals. (ISCO-88 3460) QS442
Street drug addict users of drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. (adapted from MeSH, see under Street Drugs) QC42
Structure of practice settings, manpower, medical supplies, equipment and management of primary health care services QS
Survivor someone or something that still exists after an event that could have killed or destroyed them. (Macmillan dic) QC6
Systems thinking principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. (adapted from MeSH, see under Systems Theory) QD14
Teaching evaluation a structured process of facilitated self-reflection and a means of aiding GP personal development. Key roles may include: annual exploration of role expectations; a review of progress towards previously agreed objectives; a recognition of achievements; and an identification of personal development needs. (EURACT 2014). QT13
Teaching family medicine Teaching family medicine (FM) to students in basic medical education (BME) as well as vocational trainees (VT) or practicing doctors in continuing medical education (CME) or their continuing professional development (CPD) and to all those who take part in the training programs. (adapted from EURACT 2014) QT1
Teaching organization educational organization for individuals specializing in the field of medicine. (adapted from MeSH, see under Schools, Medical) QT12
Temporal accessibility temporal accessibility deals with the different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, opening hours, waiting times etc.  (adapted from MeSH, see under Appointments and Schedules) QP22
Terminologie formal system for classifying multifaceted, complex phenomena according to a set of common conceptual domains and dimensions. (Bradley et al., 2007) QR51
Tertiary prevention action taken to reduce the chronic effects of a health problem in an individual or a population by minimizing the functional impairment consequent to the acute or chronic health problem (e.g. prevent complications of diabetes). Includes rehabilitation. (Woncadic) QD43
Therapeutic counseling counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client’s or patient’s decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations. (adapted from MeSH, see under Directive Counseling) QD13
Trainer professional involved in the educational process as leader of the process, to guide and reflect to the benefit of the learner(s). (EURACT 2014) QT25
Transgender is the state of one’s gender identity or gender expression not matching one’s assigned sex. (Wikipedia) QC24
Undergraduate in medicine period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D. (adapted from MeSH, see under Education, Medical, Undergraduate) QT21
Validation  study works consisting of research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established. (MeSH) QR34
Validation and Reliability studies research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established (adapted from MeSH, see under Validation Studies as Topic) QR34
Victim of torture the intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals. (adapted from MeSH, see under Torture) QC54
Victim of violence persons who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights. (United Nations, 1985) QC5
Vocational training training, which is designed to contribute to occupational proficiency, and which helps the trainee to discover, define, and refine his talents and to use them in working towards a career in general practice/family medicine. (Woncadic) QT22
Women’s health women’s health is devoted to facilitating the preservation of wellness and prevention of illness in women and includes screening, diagnosis and management of conditions that are unique in women. (NAWHME 1996) QC22
Work–life balance proper prioritizing between “work” and “lifestyle.” (DBpedia) QD8